A Muscle Model for 3D facial animation [pdf]

Keith Waters
Middlesex Polytechnic
ACM Siggraph 1987

Linear muscle description a Linear muscle description b
Figure 1. The zones of influence for a linear muscle vector

Abstract

The development of a parameterized facial muscle process, that incorporates the use of a model to cream realistic facial animation is described. Existing methods of facial parameterization have the inherent problem of hard-wiring performable actions. The development of a muscle process that is controllable by a limited number of parameters and is non-specific to facial topology allows a richer vocabulary and a more general approach to the modelling of the primary facial expressions. A brief discussion of facial structure is given, from which a method for a simple modelling of a muscle process that is suitable for the animation of a number of divergent facial types is described.

Linear muscle 1 Linear muscle 2 Linear muscle 3
Figure 2. Increasing contraction of the muscle